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TITLE OF DOCUMENT:

Risk criminogenous and victimogenous factors for children
A research on the sociological, criminological and psychological characteristics of risks
A research of the court practice on recognition, evaluation and management of risks

NAME OF AUTHOR(S):

Authors: D-r Iva Pushkarova, D-r Georgi Petrunov, Georgi Kirilov
External supervisors: Doc. Pavlina Petkova, Elena Yoncheva,
Research team: D-r Iva Pushkarova, D-r Georgi Petrunov, Georgi Kirilov, Deana Dimova, Ivan Ivanov, Dean Paskalev, Adriana Stoic

NAME OF PUBLISHER:

BULGARIAN JUDGES ASSOCIATION and ASSOCIATION SPECTRA

LANGUAGE OF DOCUMENT:

Bulgarian

LANGUAGE OF THE REVIEW:

English

KEYWORDS:

Boarding school, antisocial behavior, juvenile, crime

DOCUMENT TYPOLOGY:

Research

TARGET GROUP OF PUBLICATION:

Parents, Policy Makers, Teachers, Researchers, Young People, School Directors.

SIZE OF THE PUBLICATION:

21 - 100 pages

DESCRIPTION OF CONTENTS:

The criminological, sociological and psychological research has been implemented under the project “Uniform index of child crime”, financed by UNICEF-Bulgaria, while the research on the court recognition and management of risks – under project “Gavrosh’s brothers before Temida: justice for the child”, supported by the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Bulgaria.
After a thematic introduction into the subject, the publication goes thorugh the following main sections: «Crimes of children against children”, which considers the dynamics and structure of child crimes, the dynamics and structure of antisocial behavior with a child victim, as well as the main factors for transforming children into victims; «The definition for risk factor»; «Types of risk factors», where a classification of risk factors according to their origin (macrosocial, microsocial and individual), to their meaning for the child behavioral deviations is provided together with typical risk groups, risk actions and legal practices for recognition and management of criminogenous risks.
The authors have summarized the thesis and their conclusions in the closing part and have attached “Data from a research on children with behavioral deviations, towards whom an educational measure with accommodation at a specialized institution has been applied” 2009, «Parental Strategies”, “Norms and deviations”, “Terminological notes”.
The material ends with a very interesting referential list of literature.

REVIEWER’S COMMENTS ON THE DOCUMENT:

The authors have expressed the opinion that when crime, which is a common problem for each society, is related to children, regardless of the fact whether they are perpetrators or victims, society becomes particularly sensitive.
The reviewed material deals with violence among children and in particular the kind of violence, which is defined as crime. Different reasons for child crime are being stated – lack of adequate parental control, non-functional educational system, great influence on behalf of the electronic media and in particular the violence from TV and games, which surrounds them. However, the authors pay attention also to some more global views, according to which the main factors are a result of destruction of the existing norms and rules, life in value chaos and lack of moral grounds within the entire society.
According to the authors the question about the reasons presupposing the transformation of the child into a victim or perpetrator is both over-researched and underestimated. Too much has been written, but little is known. The abstractness of the theoretical conclusion often fails to correspond to the direct needs of the real life situation, in which generations of children a growing.
The conflict of the child with the law is revealed in an interesting manner. This conflict is determined by a complex combination of different circumstances with uncertain presentation in reality. Risks have been considered, which are present both within the world of the perpetrator and the world of the victim, deforming it not just by robbing it from objective opportunities for development, but also by twisting internal perceptions. The processes predetermined by risk specify the life-experience of the child and its personality, which on the other hand determine its vulnerability to risks of different kinds. According to the authors these specifics must be considered for each court trial with child participation. They also share the concern that the lack of specialized courts, the inconsistent application of the established good practices of bringing justice to child-crime – perpetrator or victim, the structurally fragmented information regarding child crime and the crimes with a child victim together with a number of other factors sometimes fail to bring fair trial for certain children. Hence the necessity for a complex and in-depth understanding of the social events, related to this kind of crime, both from the juridical, as well as from criminological, sociological and psychological point of view.
The present material combines the understandings of the different sciences, in order to respond to the questions for the nature and the kinds of criminogenous and victimogenous risks for formation of a negative behavior of children together with the approaches through which these factors could be managed through the legal and court systems of the state.
This publication is considered as very useful and complementary for the thorough understanding of the problem.

NAME OF THE REVIEWING ORGANISATION:

Zinev Art Technologies

I Am Not Scared Project
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